Debt

Quraan

In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no child; but if they leave a child, you get a fourth; after payment of legacies and debts. In what you leave, their share is a fourth, if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth; after payment of legacies and debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question, has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies and debts; so that no loss is caused (to any one). Thus is it ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Most Forbearing. (Surah 4, verse 12)

Or is it that you do ask for a reward, so that they are burdened with a load of debt? (Surah 52, Verse 40)

"We are indeed left ruined!" (Surah 56, Verse 66)

Or is it that you do ask them for a reward, so that they are burdened with a load of debt? (Surah 68, Verse 46)

Hadeeth

Abd Allah b. al-Hawzani narrated “I met Bilal the mu`adhdhin of the Messenger of Allah in Aleppo so I said, "Bilal tell me how the Messenger of Allah used to spend,"he [Bilal] said: He had nothing. I was the one who used to take care of that for him from the time Allah charged him with the Prophetic office until he passed away. Whenever am Muslim man came to him and he saw him naked he ordered me to go and borrow so that I could purchase him a cloak and clothe him and feed him. Until a man from the pagans accosted me and said, "O Bilal, I am wealthy so only borrow from me," so I did that, until one day when I had performed ablutions and stood to give the call to prayer there was the pagan who had come up with a group of merchant. When he saw me he said "O Habashi" I said "Here" whereupon he turned upon me with an angry countenance and spoke to me roughly and said, "do you know how much is between you and the month?" I said, "[it is] near" he said, "there are only four [days] between you and the month then I shall take you in the place of your debt and I shall have you tending sheep [or goats] as you used to do before. So I started to worry as human beings worry until when I had prayed the night prayer the Messenger of Allah returned to his family, I sought permission to enter and he granted it. I said O Messenger of Allah my father and mother be ransom for you, the pagan from whom I used to borrow said such-and-such to me and I do not have enough to pay off the balance and he will humiliate me, so give me permission to flee to one of the tribe which have entered Islam until Allah grants His Messenger that with which he may pay off this debt. So I set out until I arrived at my place and then hung my sword, provision bag, sandals and shield around my neck until when the first glimmer of the true dawn had shone. I was about to leave when there was a man running called, "O Bilal, answer the Prophet's call," so I set out until I came to him, there were four kneeling camels carrying burdens [outside the entrance]. I sought entrance and the Messenger of Allah said to me, "Rejoice for Allah has brought out wealth with which to settle your debts" he said "Do not you see the four kneeling camel mounts?" I said certainly. He said take them and what they bear--clothes and food which the nobleman of fadak has given me as a gift--and settle your account. So I did it (and Bilal goes on narrating) until I came to the Masjid and found the messenger of Allah there sitting in the Masjid. So I greeted him and he said "What has happened?" I said Allah has settled all the debts which the Messenger of Allah owed nothing more is owed. He said, "Is anything left over?" I said Yes. He said, "See if you can give me some relief because I shall not visit anyone in my household until you give me relief from it. So when the Messenger of Allah had prayed the night prayer, he called me and said, "What has happened?" I said the wealth is still with me; no one has come to us. So the Messenger of Allah spent the night in the Masjid. (Abu Dawud 2656)

Abu Hurairah narrated “He (the Prophet) said: "The best men are those who are best in paying off the debt."(Muslim 3002)

Ka`b bin Malik In the masjid I asked Ibn Ab– Hadrad to pay the debts which he owed to me and our voices grew louder (in discussion). The Messenger of Allah heard this while he was in his house. So he addressed us, raising the curtain of his room, and said, "O Ka`b!" I replied, "At your service, O Messenger of Allah!" He said, "O Ka`b! Reduce your debt by one half," gesturing with his hand. I said, "O Messenger of Allah! I have done so." Then the Messenger of Allah said (to Ibn Ab– Hadrad) "Get up and pay the debt to him." (Al-Bukhari)

Ayesha narrated “The Messenger of Allah used to invoke Allah in the prayer saying, "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the punishment of the grave, from the afflictions of al-Masih al-Dajjal and from the afflictions of life and death. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from sins and from being in debt." Somebody said to him, "Why do you so frequently seek refuge with Allah from being in debt." The Prophet replied, "A person in debt tells lies whenever he speaks and breaks promises whenever he makes (them)." (Al-Bukhari 789)

Abu Hurayrah narrated “The Prophet said: "For a wealthy man to procrastinate in repaying his debt is injustice. So, if your debt is transferred from your debtor to a rich debtor, you should agree (to the transfer)." (Al-Bukhari 2125)

Ab– Hurayrah narrated “Whenever (the corpse of) a dead man in debt was brought to the Messenger of Allah, he would ask, "Has he left anything with which to repay his debt." If he was informed that he had left something with which to repay his debts, he would offer his funeral prayer; otherwise he would tell the Muslims to offer their friend's funeral prayer. When Allah made the Prophet wealthy through conquests, however, he said, "I have more of a right than other believers to be the guardian of the believers, so if a Muslim dies while in debt, I am responsible for the repayment of his debt and whoever leaves wealth after his death, it will belong to his heirs." (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Abdullah bin Qatadah narrated “Abu Qatadah demanded repayment from a debtor of his but the latter disappeared. Later on he found him whereupon the debtor said: I am hard up financially. Ab– Qatadah said: "By Allah?" He said: "By Allah." Upon this he said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: He who loves that Allah should save him from the torments of the Day of Resurrection should give respite to the insolvent or remit (his debt)." (Muslim 2923)

Abu– Qatadah The Messenger of Allah stood up among them (his companions) to deliver his sermon, in which he told them that Jihad in the cause of Allah and belief in Allah (with all His Attributes) were the most meritorious of acts. A man stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, do you think that if I am killed in the cause of Allah, my sins will be blotted out from me? The Messenger of Allah said: "Yes, (provided) you were killed in the way of Allah, were patient and sincere, always fought facing the enemy and never turned your back on him." Then he added: "What have you said (just now)?" He asked (again): "Do you think that if I am killed in the say of Allah, all my sins will be obliterated from me?" The Messenger of Allah said: "Yes, if you were patient and sincere, and always fought facing the enemy, never turning your back upon him, (all your lapses shall be forgiven) except debt. Gabriel has told me this." (Muslim 3497)

Abu Hurayrah narrated “Then he (the Messenger of Allah ) said: "A loan must be paid back, a she-camel lent for a time for milking must be returned, a debt must be discharged and one who stands surety is held responsible." (Ahmad 10201)

Jabir bin Abdullah narrated “One of us died. So we washed him, embalmed him and shrouded him then brought him to the Messenger of Allah and said "Will you pray over him. He took some steps forward then said, "Does he owes anything?" We said "Two dinara." So he turned away whereupon Abu Qatadah assumed responsibility for the two dinars. So we came to the Messenger of Allah again and Abu Qatadah said, "I am responsible for the two dinƒrs," the Messenger of Allah said, "Will you be responsible for fulfilling the right of the creditor so that the corpse will be free from the burden of repaying these two dinars?." He replied "Yes" whereupon the Prophet prayed over the deceased. (Ahmad, Abu Dawud and al-Nasa'i)

Amar bin Al-Sharid narrated “The Messenger of Allah said, "Delay of payment on the part of one who is capable of paying making payment exposes him to humiliation and chatisement." (Abu Dawud and al-Nasa'i)

Abu Rabi`ah narrated “The Prophet borrowed forty thousand from me. Then some wealth came to him so he paid me and said: "May Allah bless you in your Abu Rabi`ah narrated “The Prophet borrowed forty thousand from me. Then some wealth came to him so he paid me and said: "May Allah bless you in your